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Raspberry Varieties

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Legend has it that when the Greek gods went to Mt. Ida in Turkey they returned with raspberries. Thus, the basis for the scientific name of the red raspberry Rubus Idaeus. The delicate unique flavor with the fragrant bouquet still make raspberries a favorite with fruit lovers today. For most growers, no fruit is easier to sell than raspberries as u-pick or at roadside stands. The short shelf life makes it an easy berry to sell to even large groceries from local production fields.

Raspberries should be planted on deep, well drained loamy soils. They can be grown on sandy soils if irrigation and mulch are utilized to reduce moisture stress. Ninety per cent of the raspberry root system is in the top 20 inches of the soil--so proper fertilizer and an ample supply of water is important. Heavy or poorly drained soil should be avoided as raspberry roots cannot tolerate a water saturated soil condition. Even areas which pond after it rains should be avoided as the super saturated condition will reduce vigor, increase disease problems and even cause death of the plant.

Your site should also receive full sun and have good air drainage. To avoid getting diseases from wild brambles, all wild brambles within 600 feet of your planting should be removed. You should prepare your raspberry site at least one year prior to planting. Work to build up organic matter and eliminate perennial weeds. A PH of 5.5 to 6.5 is desirable and the PH should not be below 5.5 or above 7 as serious problems will arise. Contact a local fertilizer supplier or your County Extension office for testing procedures, as well as the best way to amend your soil.

Irrigation
Ample amounts of water are needed for a healthy raspberry planting, but never standing water. Newly planted plants should be watered in well. Producing fields need up to two inches of water per week. This is especially true during fruit development and up to harvest. The use of mulch can help maintain and moderate fluctuations in available moisture, but may increase your chances of developing root diseases.

SUMMER RED RASPBERRIES

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Boyne -- 1960, Chief x Indian Summer. Morden, Manitoba.
Canes are vigorous, erect and sturdy. Boyne is very productive, extremely hardy, and among the most popular cultivars in the northcentral and northeastern states and provinces. Berries are deep red, medium size, tender and juicy. The flavor is aromatic and medium sweet, good for processing and freezing. When winter-hardiness is the question, Boyne is the answer.

Canby -- 1953, Viking x Lloyd George. Corvallis, Oregon.
The light red fruit are medium to large, firm, sweet and excellent for fresh use and processing where the light color is not a factor. The canes are vigorous. Popular in Utah, Michigan, northern Indiana and similar climates. Entirely spineless on the fruit-bearing part of the cane. Not Available for 2011. Recommend Chilcoten as a substitute.

Encore -- Canby x Cherokee (Patent 90/166,854)
This firm fruited, late season, summer bearing red raspberry produces large tasty fruit throughout its season. Encore is very productive, producing fruit on vigorous, erect, nearly spineless canes. Harvest starts after Titan and picks for almost a month in some locations. Encore shows a moderate tolerance to Phytophthora root rot. Cornell owns the rights to Encore and unauthorized propagation is prohibited.

K-81-6
Red, summer bearing, late season berry introduced in Canada. Hardy to -34°, vigorous and tall plants have excellent taste. A very large, firm berry. Try these where cold temperatures are a problem.

Killarney -- 1961, Chief x Indiana Summer. Morden, Manitoba.
Deep red fruit is sweet and of excellent quality. Slightly larger and lighter than Boyne. Canes are medium-sized and very sturdy. As hardy as Boyne and does not sucker as much. This high quality fruit ripens about one week after Boyne. Killarney is excellent for fresh market, pick your own, freezing and processing. Paul and Dan at North Star Gardens tell me that as they convert their farm from nursey production back to fruit production, Killarney will become their major summer red raspberry variety.

Lauren -- (Patent 10610)
For those looking for Titan we offer Lauren – Titan parentage but better resistance to Phytophthora Root Rot and better yields.

Nova -- 1981, Southland x Boyne, Kentville, Nova Scotia.
Vigorous growing, hardy with respect to fluctuating winter temperatures. Plant is high yielding with bright red fruit, firm and suitable for fres-market, pick-your-own and freezing. Cane is nearly spineless in floricane and resistant to most cane diseases. Primocane bears a small fall crop later than Heritage.

Prelude
Originated from a cross of NY817 (Hilton x NY600 (Durham x September) 'Hilton' previously known and tested as NY1009.  'Prelude' is a red raspberry developed by Cornell University at the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station in Geneva, New York. Noted for having a very early summer crop, peaking in production well before all other standard varieties. It matures a high percentage of its fruit in late June and very early July. Plants are hardy and vigorous. Average fruit size and yield are similar to other early varieties. The attractive, high quality, firm fruit are easy to harvest, making them suitable for shipping and retail marketing. 'Prelude' is the earliest maturing summer red raspberry cultivar available for production in the East Coast and Great Lakes regions. Canes have sparse but noticeable spines and are average height. It is winter hardy in zone 5 and plants are vigorous and sucker freely. Fruit are positioned openly with good placement and are very easy to harvest. 'Prelude' fruit are round conic in shape and are coherent and uniform.

Taylor
Perhaps best flavored of red raspberries! Heavy producer. Large conical, light red fruit often more than 1 inch long, very firm. Start picking the first week in July, then for 3 weeks! Canes are hardy and vigorous.

 FALL BEARING VARIETIES

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Raspberries

Autumn Bliss -- 1984, Complex parentage, including Rubus strigosis, R.. arcticus, R.. occidentalis, and 6 red raspberry varieties. Plant Patent #6597.
Autumn Bliss begins bearing its fall crop 2 to 3 weeks before Heritage. It yields 50% of its total yield during the first three weeks of harvest, thereby insuring a good crop even if there is an early freeze. Autumn Bliss also shows a tolerance to heat for southern growers. The fruit is large, averaging about 3.4 grams over all harvest, ovalconic, skin is slightly dark red; with a pleasant, rather mild flavor. The primocanes are moderately numerous, fairly erect, with numerous light purple spines. Autumn Bliss is the NUMBER ONE fallbearing raspberry for our area, and has combined well with other varieties to give overlapping fresh market raspberry production.

Caroline -- (Patent #10412)
This new fall bearing red raspberry produces huge, very sweet, firm fruit. Caroline ripens before Heritage and is a big producer. The Caroline plant is more resistant to root rots than Heritage, making it suitable for a wider range of soil types. The vigorous growth habits, its disease resistance, and its exceptional fruit quality makes Caroline a good choice for the home gardner and commercial grower alike.

Heritage -- GREAT FLAVOR, AND NO. 1 SELLER!
This hardy variety can, as all fall bearing varieties, produce two crops. The first comes in July and the second is the fall crop that starts in September and lasts right up until the first hard freeze. Berries are large, brilliant red, extremely firm and attractive. These berries are superb for freezing and delicious for table use. Because the fall season is usually cooler, the fall crop is larger than the summer crop. And the yield from only one full crop will usually be greater than the combined yield if allowed to double crop. Rated the number one fall bearing variety.

Nantahala --  (Patent #20689)
A late ripening primocane raspberry for warmer climates. Very attractive red color with superior flavor and shape. Larger and firmer than Heritage. Recommended for the mountain regions of North Carolina and adjacent states with high elevation. Performs best where the growing season is long and summer temperatures are mild with uniformly cool temperatures in winter long enough to satisfy the chilling requirement.

Polana -- Released from Poland.
Large good flavored fruit ripens at least 3 weeks earlier than Heritage. Canes are vigorous, compact and very productive. Usually needs additional fertilizer. A good choice for northern growers with shorter growing seasons. Bridges the gap between summer bearing and fall bearing red raspberries.

Vintage - NEW! (Patent Pending)
A new primocane fruiting red raspberry producing high yields of large, firm bright red colored fruit with outstanding flavor.  Vintage produces approximately 3 weeks earlier than Heritage and is just as productive.  The bright red color is ideal for the fresh market!  An excellent addition to your existing raspberry patch. 
 

BLACK RASPBERRIES

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Selecting A Planting Site & Pruning

Site selection and preparation for black raspberries is essentially the same as for red raspberries. However, pruning is very different.

Summer Topping: An essential step in the production of these brambles is summer topping. Topping consists of removing, by snapping off with the fingers or cutting with a pair of shears, the top 3" or 4" of the new shoots as they develop. Topping should be done with black raspberries when the shoots are about 24" high and with purple ones when they reach 30", if they are grown without supports. When with supports, the shoots many be allowed to grow 6" to 8" more. Plantings need to be topped a number of times as new canes arise over a period of several weeks. In most seasons this operation will, in part, coincide with harvest.

Summer topping encourages the development of strong fruitful laterals. It also produces stronger, stockier plants better able to support their crops and to resist wind damage. Simply pinching out the tips or removing large segments of shoots has not proved to be as beneficial.

Removal of Fruited Canes: Characteristically, the canes of bramble fruits die shortly after they have produced a crop. These canes can be removed after the harvest season. They should be cut off immediately after harvest. The canes are vigorous and adapt well to many soil types. Hardy to -25º F and recommended for upper south mountain areas and northern U.S.

Black Raspberries (Black Caps)

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Bristol -- 1934, NYFTA, Geneva, NY. (Watson Prolific x Honeysweet)
This medium-large berry is firm, of good flavor and glossy skin. It is a good yielder, susceptible to anthracnose, but tolerant to powdery mildew.

Jewel -- 1973, NYFTA, Geneva, NY (Bristol x Dundee) 
The plant is vigorous, erect, consistently productive, resistant to anthracnose and widely adapted. The fruit ripens early and the ripening season is concentrated, similar to Allen. The berries are large, with glossy skin, coherent, firm, of superior quality and excellent flavor.

Mac Black
A late black with medium to large berries. Hardy, and ideal for extending picking season.

Niwot -- NEW! --Primocane Black Raspberry!
Rhymes with My Pot.  If primocanes are overwintered and treated the same as standard summer bearing black raspberries they will produce an attractive and productive floricane crop.  Primocanes produce berries in the fall, ripening over 3-4 weeks or until frost beginning in late August/early September in Zone 5.  The summer crop produces medium to large berries about a week before Jewel.  The fall berries are a little larger than Jewel.  Niwot is quite vigorous so suggested plant spacing is 4' apart within the rows as opposed to 2'-1 1/2' like other black raspberries. 

PURPLE RASPERRIES

Purple raspberries are cultivars with both red and black raspberries in their genetics which produce uniquely flavored fruit. The growth habit of the purple plant shows some characteristics of both the red and the black. They are extremely vigorous and often show added disease and insect resistance. As the fruit ripens it changes color from red to purple. Some varieties, such as Royalty, can virtually become black when overripe. Purple raspberries have an intense color, flavor and aroma, and are excellent for jams and jellies. They ripen later than black or red varieties.

Brandywine -- 1976, NYFTA, Geneva, NY. NY 631 x Hilton.
The canes are vigorous, fairly erect, strong, heavy and form large hill-system plants. They do not sucker like red raspberries. Berries are reddish-purple, large, round-conical, firm, coherent, tart and of good quality-- unsurpassed for jams, jellies and pies. Out produces most reds by 25% (east of the Rockies). Space plants 30" apart in row as they will not fill in.

Royalty -- U.S. Plant Patent #5405. 1982, NYFTA at Geneva. NY (Cumberland x Newburgh) x (Newburgh x Indian Summer).
This large-fruited, sweet berry has a dual picking time--the full red stage with eal read raspberry flavor and the overripe stage where it nearly equals a black raspberrry. The strong raspberry aroma is preserved in processing. It is vigorous, very prodcutive, and typically outyields reds by 25% or more east of the Rockies. Set plants 30" apart.

FALL BEARING YELLOW RASPBERRY

Yellow Raspberries

Anne -- (Patent 10441)
Fruit is very large and super sweet. Yellow raspberries are softer than red raspberries and don’t ship well, so they are hard to find in the grocery store. ‘Anne’ is best enjoyed picked fresh from the bush however the fruit is firmer than Fall Gold. Anne Yellow Raspberry canes are semi-erect and the plant is disease resistant. Ripens at the same time as Heritage.

Double Gold
Unusual, beautiful berries of golden champagne with a deep blush.  Very productive and delicious!  Plants are vigorous and resistant to Phytophthora root rot as well as most common leaf diseases.  The double in its name refers to the two crops per season that it can bear.  As with other yellow varieties, the frit is soft so better suited to U-Pick growers, farms stands and farmers markets.

Fall Gold
This everbearing yellow raspberry is an exotic wild berry mix from the mountains of Korea. It will bear conical, non-crumbling, extremely sweet golden berries--excellent for eating fresh or processing. The canes are vigorous and adapt well to many soil types. Hardy to -25 degrees F and recommended for upper south mountain areas and northern U.S.

 
Raspberry Fruiting Chart
Fruiting Season: 1 being the earliest and 4 being the latest | Fruit Size: S=Small   M=Medium   L=Large   VL=Very Large | Phytophthora Resistance: 1 = Most   5 = Least
    Fruiting Season Flavor Berry Size Phytophthora
Resistance
Zones
Summer Red Boyne 1 Good M 4 3-8
Canby 1 Very Good M-L 2 4-8
Encore 4 Very Good VL 4 4-8
Killarney 2 Good M-L 1 3-8
K-81-6 3 Very Good VL unknown 4-8
Lauren 2 Very Good L 4 5-8
Nova 3 Excellent M-L 2 3-8
Prelude 1 Excellent L 1 5-8
Taylor 4 Excellent M-L 3 4-7
Fall Red Autumn Bliss 1 Excellent L 2 3-8
Caroline 2 Excellent VL 2 4-8
Heritage 4 Very Good M 3 4-9
Nantahala 4 Excellent L unknown 5-7
Polana 1 Good L unknown 3-8
  Vintage 4 Excellent L unknown 4-8
Black Bristol 2 Very Good M 1 5-8
Jewel 1 Good VL 1 4-8
Niwot 1 Excellent L Unknown 5-8
  Mac Black 3 Good L 2 3-8
Purple Royalty 2 Very Good VL 2 4-9
Brandywine 2 Good L 2 4-8
Yellow Anne (Fall) 2 Excellent L 1 4-12
Double Gold(Fall) 3 Excellent M 1 5-8
  Fall Gold (Fall) 3 Excellent M-L 3 4-8